Training High and Low in the Heat: a Promising Conditioning Cocktail?

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Altitude Training and Team Sports Conference
Aspetar, Doha – Qatar
24 & 25 March 2013

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Tolerance to high-intensity intermittent running exercise

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The straight-line version of the test we used in the following paper:

Front Physiol. 2012 Oct 22;3:406. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00406. eCollection 2012.

Tolerance to high-intensity intermittent running exercise: do oxygen uptake kinetics really matter?

Source

Physiology Unit, Football Performance and Science Department, ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence Doha, Qatar.

Abstract

We examined the respective associations between aerobic fitness ([Formula: see text]max), metabolic control ([Formula: see text] kinetics) and locomotor function, and various physiological responses to high-intensity intermittent (HIT) running exercise in team sport players. Eleven players (30.5 ± 3.6 year) performed a series of tests to determine their [Formula: see text]max and the associated velocity (v[Formula: see text]max), maximal sprinting speed (MSS) and [Formula: see text] kinetics at exercise onset in the moderate and severe intensity domains, and during recovery ([Formula: see text] SEV). Cardiorespiratory variables, oxygenation and electromyography of lower limbs muscles and blood lactate ([La]) concentration were collected during a standardized HIT protocol consisting in 8 sets of 10, 4-s runs. During HIT, four players could not complete more than two sets; the others finished at least five sets. Metabolic responses to the two first sets of HIT were negatively correlated with [Formula: see text]max, v[Formula: see text]max, and [Formula: see text] SEV (r = -0.6 to -0.8), while there was no clear relationship with the other variables. [Formula: see text], oxygenation and [La] responses to the first two sets of HIT were the only variables that differed between the players which could complete at least five sets or those who could not complete more than two sets. Players that managed to run at least five sets presented, in comparison with the others, greater v[Formula: see text]max [ES = +1.5(0.4; 2.7), MSS(ES = +1.0(0.1; 1.9)] and training load [ES = +3.8 (2.8; 4.9)]. There was no clear between-group difference in any of the [Formula: see text] kinetics measures [e.g., ES = -0.1(-1.4; 1.2) for [Formula: see text] SEV]. While [Formula: see text]max and v[Formula: see text]max are likely determinant for HIT tolerance, the importance of [Formula: see text] kinetics as assessed in this study appears limited in the present population. Knowing the main factors influencing tolerance to HIT running exercise may assist practitioners in personalizing training interventions.

Performance and physiological responses during a sprint interval training session

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Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Feb;112(2):767-79. doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-2021-1. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

Performance and physiological responses during a sprint interval training session: relationships with muscle oxygenation and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics.

Source

Physiology Unit, Sport Science Department, ASPIRE, Academy for Sports Excellence, P.O. Box 22287, Doha, Qatar. martin.buchheit@aspire.qa

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory and muscle oxygenation responses to a sprint interval training (SIT) session, and to assess their relationships with maximal pulmonary O(2) uptake [Formula: see text], on- and off- [Formula: see text] kinetics and muscle reoxygenation rate (Reoxy rate). Ten male cyclists performed two 6-min moderate-intensity exercises (≈90-95% of lactate threshold power output, Mod), followed 10 min later by a SIT session consisting of 6 × 30-s all out cycling sprints interspersed with 2 min of passive recovery. [Formula: see text] kinetics at Mod onset ([Formula: see text]) and cessation ([Formula: see text]) were calculated. Cardiorespiratory variables, blood lactate ([La](b)) and muscle oxygenation level of the vastus lateralis (tissue oxygenation index, TOI) were recorded during SIT. Percentage of the decline in power output (%Dec), time spent above 90% of [Formula: see text] (t > 90% [Formula: see text]) and Reoxy rate after each sprint were also recorded. Despite a low mean [Formula: see text] (48.0 ± 4.1% of [Formula: see text]), SIT performance was associated with high peak [Formula: see text] (90.4 ± 2.8% of [Formula: see text]), muscle deoxygenation (sprint ΔTOI = -27%) and [La](b) (15.3 ± 0.7 mmol l(-1)) levels. Muscle deoxygenation and Reoxy rate increased throughout sprint repetitions (P < 0.001 for both). Except for t > 90% [Formula: see text] versus [Formula: see text] [r = 0.68 (90% CL, 0.20; 0.90); P = 0.03], there were no significant correlations between any index of aerobic function and either SIT performance or physiological responses [e.g., %Dec vs. [Formula: see text]: r = -0.41 (-0.78; 0.18); P = 0.24]. Present results show that SIT elicits a greater muscle O(2) extraction with successive sprint repetitions, despite the decrease in external power production (%Dec = 21%). Further, our findings obtained in a small and homogenous group indicate that performance and physiological responses to SIT are only slightly influenced by aerobic fitness level in this population.

High-intensity Hypoxic Intervals

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J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Jan;26(1):94-105. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182184fcb.

Physiological strain associated with high-intensity hypoxic intervals in highly trained young runners.

Source

Sport Science Department, ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence, Doha, Qatar. martin.buchheit@aspire.qa

Abstract

To examine the physiological strain associated with hypoxic high intensity interval training (HHIT), 8 highly trained young runners (age, 18.6 ± 5.3 years) randomly performed, 5 × 3-minute intervals in either normoxic (N, 90% of the velocity associated with VO(2max), vVO(2max)) or hypoxic (H, simulated 2,400-m altitude, 84% of νVO(2max)) conditions. Cardiorespiratory (ventilation [V(E)], oxygen consumption [V(O2)], heart rate [HR], oxygen saturation [SpO(2)]), rating of central perceived exertion (RPE(C)) responses, changes in neutrophils, erythropoietin (EPO), blood lactate ([La]) and, bicarbonate ([HCO(-)(3)]), vagal-related indices of HR variability (natural logarithm of the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences [Ln rMSSD]) and maximal sprint and jump performances were compared after each session. Compared with N, H was associated with similar V(E) (Cohen’s d ± 90% confidence limits, 0.0 ± 0.4, with % chances of higher/similar/lower values of 15/61/24) but at least lower VO(2) (-0.8 ± 0.4, 0/0/100), HR (-0.4 ± 0.4, 1/21/78), and SpO(2) (-1.8 ± 0.4, 0/0/100). Rating of perceived exertion was very likely higher (+0.5 ± 0.4, 92/8/0). Changes in [HCO(3)] (-0.6 ± 0.8, 5/13/83), [La] (+0.2 ± 0.4, 52/42/5), and EPO (+0.2 ± 0.4, 55/40/5) were at least possibly greater after H compared with those after N, whereas changes in neutrophils were likely lower (-0.5 ± 0.7, 4/15/81). Changes in 20-m sprint time (+0.20 ± 0.23, 49/50/1) were possibly lower after H. There was no clear difference in the changes in Ln rMSSD (+0.2 ± 1.7, 48/18/34) and jump (+0.3 ± 0.9, 60/25/15). In conclusion, although perceived as harder, HHIT is not associated with an exaggerated physiological stress in highly trained young athletes. The present results also confirm that HHIT may not be optimal for training both the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular determinants of running performance in this population.

Monitoring fitness in Football with the 5-5 test

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Buchheit - Monitoring changes...

Oral presentation @ the World Congress on Science & Football

pdf: Buchheit – Monitoring changes… (WCSF 2011)

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Jul;109(5):869-78. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1422-x. Epub 2010 Mar 14.

Determinants of the variability of heart rate measures during a competitive period in young soccer players.

Source

Performance Enhancement and Talent Identification Section, ASPIRE, Academy for Sports Excellence, P.O. Box 22287, Doha, Qatar. martin.buchheit@aspire.qa

Abstract

Measurements of exercise heart rate (HR(ex)), HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV) are used as indices of training status. However, the day-to-day variability of these indices throughout a competitive soccer period is unknown. On 14 occasions during a 3-week competition camp, 18 under 15 (U15) and 15 under 17 (U17) years soccer players performed a 5-min submaximal run, followed by a seated 5-min recovery period. HR(ex) was determined during the last 30 s of exercise, while HRR and HRV were measured during the first and last 3 min of the post-exercise recovery period, respectively. U15 players displayed greater HR(ex) (P = 0.02) and HRR (P = 0.004) compared with the U17 players, but there was no difference in HRV (P = 0.74). The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for HR(ex) was lower than that for HRV [3.4 (90% CL, 3.1, 3.7) vs. 10.7 (9.6, 11.9)%, P < 0.001]; both were lower than that for HRR [13.3 (12.2, 14.3)%, P < 0.01]. In contrast to HR(ex) and HRR, the CV for HRV was correlated to maximal aerobic speed (r = -0.52, P = 0.002). There was no correlation between total activity time (training sessions + matches) and CV of any of the quantified variables. The variability of each of these measures and player fitness levels should be considered when interpreting changes in training status.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Feb;112(2):711-23. doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-2014-0. Epub 2011 Jun 9.

Monitoring changes in physical performance with heart rate measures in young soccer players.

Source

Physiology Unit, Sport Science Department, ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence, P.O. Box 22287, Doha, Qatar. martin.buchheit@aspire.qa

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to verify the validity of using exercise heart rate (HRex), HR recovery (HRR) and post-exercise HR variability (HRV) during and after a submaximal running test to predict changes in physical performance over an entire competitive season in highly trained young soccer players. Sixty-five complete data sets were analyzed comparing two consecutive testing sessions (3-4 months apart) collected on 46 players (age 15.1 ± 1.5 years). Physical performance tests included a 5-min run at 9 km h(-1) followed by a seated 5-min recovery period to measure HRex, HRR and HRV, a counter movement jump, acceleration and maximal sprinting speed obtained during a 40-m sprint with 10-m splits, repeated-sprint performance and an incremental running test to estimate maximal cardiorespiratory function (end test velocity V (Vam-Eval)). Possible changes in physical performance were examined for the players presenting a substantial change in HR measures over two consecutive testing sessions (greater than 3, 13 and 10% for HRex, HRR and HRV, respectively). A decrease in HRex or increase in HRV was associated with likely improvements in V (Vam-Eval); opposite changes led to unclear changes in V (Vam-Eval). Moderate relationships were also found between individual changes in HRR and sprint [r = 0.39, 90% CL (0.07;0.64)] and repeated-sprint performance [r = -0.38 (-0.05;-0.64)]. To conclude, while monitoring HRex and HRV was effective in tracking improvements in V (Vam-Eval), changes in HRR were moderately associated with changes in (repeated-)sprint performance. The present data also question the use of HRex and HRV as systematic markers of physical performance decrements in youth soccer players.

30-15 IIT

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The 30-15 Intermittent Ice test

 

J Strength Cond Res. 2011 May;25(5):1457-64. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d686b7.

Reliability, usefulness, and validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test in young elite ice hockey players.

Source

Laboratory of Exercise Physiology and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Picardie, Jules Verne, Amiens, France. martin.buchheit@u-picardie.fr

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, usefulness, and validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test (30-15(IIT)) in 17 young elite ice hockey players. For the reliability and usefulness study, players performed the 30-15(IIT) 7 days apart. For the validity study, data derived from the first 30-15(IIT) were compared with those obtained from the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15(IFT), the running version of this test used as a reference marker for its ability to assess cardiovascular fitness in the field, that is, VO₂peak). Maximal speed, heart rate at exhaustion (HR(peak)) and postexercise blood-lactate levels ([La](b)) were collected for all tests, whereas submaximal HR was taken at stages 4 and 8 (HR(stage4) and HR(stage8)) during the 30-15(IIT). All intra-class correlation coefficients were >0.94. Coefficients of variation were 1.6% (90% CI, 1.3-2.3), 1.7% (1.3-2.8), 1.4% (1.0-2.2), and 0.7% (0.5-1.1) for maximal skating speed, HR(stage4), HR(stage8), and HR(peak), respectively. Correlations between maximal velocities and HR(peak) obtained for the 30-15(IIT) vs. 30-15(IFT) were very large (r = 0.72) and large (r = 0.61), respectively. Maximal skating speed was also largely correlated to estimated VO₂peak (r = 0.71). There was however no correlation for [La](b) values between both tests (r = 0.42). These results highlight the specificity of the on-ice 30-15(IIT) and show it to be a reliable and valid test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in young elite players. Coaches could interpret a change in performance of at least 2 stages, or a change in submaximal HR of more than 8% (≈8 b·min⁻¹) during the eighth stage to be a meaningful change in skating fitness.

 

Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013 Mar;8(2):173-80. Epub 2012 Aug 15.

Cardiorespiratory responses to the 30-15 intermittent ice test.

Source

ISSUL Inst of Sport Sciences-Dept of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

In this study, the authors compared the cardiorespiratory responses between the 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test (30-15(IIT)) and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15(IFT)) in semiprofessional hockey players.

METHODS:

Ten players (age 24 ± 6 y) from a Swiss League B team performed the 30-15(IIT) and 30-15(IFT) in random order (13 ± 4 d between trials). Cardiorespiratory variables were measured with a portable gas analyzer. Ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory-compensation point (RCP), and maximal speeds were measured for both tests. Peak blood lactate ([La(peak)]) was measured at 1 min postexercise.

RESULTS:

Compared with 30-15(IFT), 30-15(IIT) peak heart rate (HR(peak); mean ± SD 185 ± 7 vs 189 ± 10 beats/min, P = .02) and peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)); 60 ± 7 vs 62.7 ± 4 mL/min/kg, P = .02) were lower, whereas [La(peak)] was higher (10.9 ± 1 vs 8.6 ± 2 mmol/L, P < .01) for the 30-15(IIT). VT and RCP values during the 30-15(IIT) and 30-15(IFT) were similar for %HR(peak) (76.3% ± 5% vs 75.5% ± 3%, P = .53, and 90.6% ± 3% vs. 89.8% ± 3%, P = .45) and % VO(2peak) (62.3% ± 5% vs 64.2% ± 6%, P = .46, and 85.9% ± 5% vs 84.0% ± 7%, P = .33). VO(2peak ))(r = .93, P < .001), HR(peak) (r = .86, P = .001), and final velocities (r = .69, P = .029) were all largely to almost perfectly correlated.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite slightly lower maximal cardiorespiratory responses than in the field-running version of the test, the on-ice 30-15(IIT) is of practical interest since it is a specific maximal test with a higher anaerobic component.

Repeated Sprint and Jump Test

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Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010 Mar;5(1):3-17.

Reliability, usefulness, and validity of a repeated sprint and jump ability test.

Laboratory of Exercise Physiology and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Picardie, Jules Verne, Amiens, France.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Two studies involving 122 handball players were conducted to assess the reliability, usefulness, and validity of a repeated shuttle-sprint and jump ability (RSSJA) test. The test consisted of 6x(2×12.5-m) sprints departing on 25 s, with a countermovement jump performed during recovery between sprints.

METHODS:

For the reliability and usefulness study, 14 well-trained male handball players performed the RSSJA test 7 d apart. Reliability of the test variables was assessed by the typical error of measurement, expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). The minimal changes likely to be “real” in sprint time and jump power were also calculated. For the validity study, players of seven teams (national to international levels, women and men) performed the RSSJA test.

RESULTS:

CV values for best and mean sprint time were 1.0% (90% CL, 0.7 to 1.6) and 1.0% (90% CL, 0.7 to 1.4). CV values for best and mean jump peak power were 1.7% (90% CL, 1.2 to 2.7) and 1.5% (90% CL, 1.1 to 2.5). The percent sprint and jump decrements were less reliable, with CVs of 22.3% (90% CL, 15.7 to 38.3) and 34.8% (90% CL, 24.2 to 61.8). Minimal changes likely to be “real” for mean sprint time and jumping peak power were -2.6% and 4.8%. Qualitative analysis revealed that the majority of between-team differences were rated as “almost certain” (ie, 100% probability that the true differences were meaningful) for mean sprint and jump performances.

CONCLUSION:

The RSSJA test is reliable and valid to assess repeated explosive effort sequences in team sports such as handball. Test results are likely to be representative of gender and competition level; thus the test could be used to discriminate across playing standards and monitor fitness levels.

 

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Nov;110(5):1007-18. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1587-3. Epub 2010 Jul 30.

Performance and physiological responses to repeated-sprint and jump sequences.

Source

Laboratory of Exercise Physiology and Rehabilitation, EA 3300, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Picardie, Jules Verne, Amiens, France. martin.buchheit@u-picardie.fr

Abstract

In this study, the performance and selected physiological responses to team-sport specific repeated-sprint and jump sequence were investigated. On four occasions, 13 team-sport players (22 ± 3 year) performed alternatively six repeated maximal straight-line or shuttle-sprints interspersed with a jump ([RS(+j), 6 × 25 m] or [RSS(+j), 6 × (2 × 12.5 m)]) or not ([RS, 6 × 25 m] or [RSS, 6 × (2 × 12.5 m)]) within each recovery period. Mean running time, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), pulmonary oxygen uptake (V(O)₂), blood lactate ([La](b)), and vastus lateralis deoxygenation ([HHb]) were obtained for each condition. Mean sprint times were greater for RS(+j) versus RS (4.14 ± 0.17 vs. 4.09 ± 0.16 s, with the qualitative analysis revealing a 82% chance of RS(+j) times to be greater than RS) and for RSS(+j) versus RSS (5.43 ± 0.18 vs. 5.29 ± 0.17 s; 99% chance of RSS(+j) to be >RSS). The correlation between sprint and jump abilities were large-to-very-large, but below 0.71 for RSSs. Jumps increased RPE (Cohen’s d ± 90% CL: +0.7 ± 0.5; 95% chance for RS(+j) > RS and +0.7 ± 0.5; 96% for RSS(+j) > RSS), V(O)₂(+0.4 ± 0.5; 80% for RS(+j) > RS and +0.5 ± 0.5; 86% for RSS(+j) > RSS), [La](b) (+0.5 ± 0.5; 59% for RS(+j) > RS and +0.2 ± 0.5; unclear for RSS(+j) > RSS), and [HHb] (+0.5 ± 0.5; 86% for RS(+j) > RS and +0.5 ± 0.5; 85% for RSS(+j) > RSS). To conclude, repeated- sprint and jump abilities could be considered as specific qualities. The addition of a jump within the recovery periods during repeated-sprint running sequences impairs sprinting performance and might be an effective training practice for eliciting both greater systemic and vastus lateralis physiological loads.

Cardiorespiratory responses to small Handball games

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J Sci Med Sport. 2009 May;12(3):399-405. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2007.11.007. Epub 2008 Mar 20.

Cardiorespiratory responses during running and sport-specific exercises in handball players.

Source

Laboratoire de Recherche, EA 3300 (APS et conduites motrices: Adaptations Réadaptations), Faculté des Sciences du Sport d’Amiens, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Allée P. Grousset, 80025 Amiens Cedex 1, France. martin.buchheit@u-picardie.fr

Abstract

To determine whether a 4-a-side handball (HB) game is an appropriate aerobic stimulus to reach and potentially enhance maximal oxygen uptake (V O(2)max), and whether heart rate (HR) is a valid index of V O(2) during a handball game. Nine skilled players (21.0+/-2.9 yr) underwent a graded maximal aerobic test (GT) where V O(2)max and HR-V O(2) relationship were determined. V O(2), HR and blood lactate ([La](b)) were recorded during a 2 x 225 s (interspersed with 30s rest) 4-a-side handball game and were compared to those measured during an 480-s running intermittent exercise (IE). Mean V O(2) tended to be higher in handball compared to IE (93.9+/-8.5 vs. 87.6+/-7.4% O(2)max, p=0.06), whereas HR was similar (92.3+/-4.9 vs. 93.9+/-3.9% of the peak of HR, p=0.10). [La](b) was lower for handball than for IE (8.9+/-3.5 vs. 11.6+/-2.1 mmol l(-1), p=0.04). Time spent over 90% of V O(2)max was higher for handball than for IE (336.1+/-139.6s vs. 216.1+/-124.7s; p=0.03). The HR-V O(2) relationship during GT was high (r(2)=0.96, p<0.001) but estimated V O(2) from HR was lower to that measured (p=0.03) in handball, whereas there was no difference in IE. 4-a-side handball game can be used as a specific alternative to IE for enhancing aerobic fitness in handball players. Nevertheless, the accuracy of HR measures for estimating V O(2) during handball is poor.